Taxonomic change history
Changes from supplements to the 7th edition (1998) of the AOU Check-list of North American Birds that affected the lists of North Carolina or South Carolina birds.
Skip to year: 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
- 42nd Supplement, July 2000
- Rename Oldsquaw to Long-tailed Duck
- Split; remove Crested Caracara Caracara plancus and replace with Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway
- Lump genus Catharacta (Skuas) into Stercorarius
- Split; remove Black-billed Magpie Pica pica and replace with Black-billed Magpie Pica hudsonia
- Change scientific name of Black-capped Chickadee from Poecile atricapillus to Poecile atricapilla
- Move Bullock's Oriole before Baltimore Oriole
- 43rd Supplement, July 2002
- Lump genus Ajaia (Spoonbills) into Platalea
- Lump genus Porphyrula (Purple Gallinule) into Porphyrio
- Split; remove Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago and replace with Wilson's Snipe Gallinago delicata
- Change scientific name of Red Phalarope from Phalaropus fulicaria to Phalaropus fulicarius
- Lump genus Guiraca (Blue Grosbeak) into Passerina
- 44th Supplement, July 2003
- Rename Rock Dove to Rock Pigeon
- Genus Columba is split up; Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata becomes Patagioenas fasciata
- Genus Otus is split up; Eastern Screech-Owl Otus asio becomes Megascops asio
- Lump genus Nyctea (Snowy Owl) into Bubo
- Change scientific name of Black-capped Chickadee Poecile atricapilla back to Poecile atricapillus (see Supplement 42)
- Change scientific name of Ovenbird from Seiurus aurocapillus to Seiurus aurocapilla
- Move the entire orders Anseriformes and Galliformes to the beginning of the list
- 45th Supplement, July 2004
- Split; insert Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii after Barnacle Goose
- Move Canada Goose to follow Cackling Goose
- Change scientific name of Spotted Sandpiper from Actitis macularia to Actitis macularius
- Change scientific name of Worm-eating Warbler from Helmitheros vermivorus to Helmitheros vermivorum
- 46th Supplement, July 2005
- Lump; delete Black-backed Wagtail (merged with White Wagtail)
- 47th Supplement, July 2006
- Cape Verde Shearwater Calonectris edwardsii recognized by AOU (was already on NC list)
- Black-bellied Storm-Petrel Fregetta tropica recognized by AOU (was already on NC list)
- Lump genus Catoptrophorus (Willet) into Tringa
- Change specific name of Willet; was Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, now
The sequence of species of Tringa and Actitis becomes
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca Willet Tringa semipalmata Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes
- Create new family Stercorariidae containing the skuas and jaegers
- Move Stercorariidae to follow the Laridae (preceding Alcidae)
- Genus Sterna is split up: Gull-billed Tern goes to Gelochelidon,
Caspian to Hydroprogne, Royal and Sandwich to Thalasseus, Least to
Bridled and Sooty to Onychoprion. Specific name of Royal Tern changes from
maxima to maximus; Sooty Tern from fuscata to fuscatus. The sequence of
tern species becomes
Brown Noddy Anous stolidus Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus Least Tern Sternula antillarum Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Black Tern Chlidonias niger White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii Common Tern Sterna hirundo Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis
- Rename Ringed Turtle-Dove Streptopelia risoria to African Collared-Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea
- Move Yellow-billed Cuckoo before Black-billed Cuckoo
- 48th Supplement, July 2007
- Move family Cathartidae (Vultures) from Ciconiiformes back to Falconiformes as the first family in that order
- Split; remove Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans and replace with Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
- Genus Ceryle is split; Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon becomes Megaceryle alcyon
- 49th Supplement, July 2008
- Move the order Phoenicopteriformes to follow Podicipediformes
- Split; remove Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber and replace with American Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber
- "black-headed" gulls are split from genus Larus:
Bonaparte's and Black-headed move to genus Chroicocephalus; Little to Hydrocoloeus;
Laughing and Franklin's to Leucophaeus
The sequence of gull species becomes
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla Sabine's Gull Xema sabini Bonaparte's Gull Chroicocephalus philadelphia Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan
followed by the remaining species of Larus in the same sequence as before.
- Change the common name of Green Violet-ear to Green Violetear
- 50th Supplement, July 2009
- Move the family Odontophoridae to precede (instead of follow) the family Phasianidae (i.e., move Northern Bobwhite to precede Ring-necked Pheasant and Ruffed Grouse)
- Move the genus Piranga to the beginning of the family Cardinalidae, eliminating the family Thraupidae (i.e., move Summer, Scarlet and Western Tanagers to precede Northern Cardinal)
- Change the common name of Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow to Nelson's Sparrow
- Change the common name of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow to Saltmarsh Sparrow
- Change the genus of Common Redpoll from Carduelis to Acanthis
- Change the genus of Pine Siskin and the goldfinches from Carduelis to Spinus
- 51st Supplement, July 2010
- Black Scoter is split into separate New World and Old World species. The Old World species takes the English name Common Scoter. The scientific name of the American species is changed from Melanitta nigra to Melanitta americana. In the published supplement, the English name of the American species is also changed to American Scoter. However, an erratum clarifies that this was an editing error, and that the American species remains Black Scoter.
- Greater Shearwater is renamed to Great Shearwater.
- Move Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel to precede Leach's Storm-Petrel and remove the note “Not on AOU Check-list”.
- Pelecaniformes is split into three orders: Pelecaniformes,
Phaethontiformes, and Suliformes. Only the Pelicans remain in
Pelecaniformes, and herons and ibises are moved from Ciconiiformes to
Pelecaniformes, leaving only storks in Ciconiiformes.
The new sequence of orders and families is
Phaethontiformes Tropicbirds Phaethontidae Tropicbirds Ciconiiformes Storks Ciconiidae Storks Suliformes Frigatebirds, Boobies, Cormorants, Darters, and Allies Fregatidae Frigatebirds Sulidae Boobies and Gannets Phalacrocoracidae Cormorants Anhingidae Darters Pelecaniformes Pelicans, Herons, Ibises, and Allies Pelecanidae Pelicans Ardeidae Herons, Bitterns, and Allies Threskiornithidae Ibises and Spoonbills
Within families there is no change in sequence of species.
- Osprey is split into its own family. All raptors except falcons are
split from order Falconiformes into new order Accipitriformes, leaving
only the family Falconidae in order Falconiformes. The new sequence of
orders and families is
Accipitriformes Hawks, Kites, Eagles, and Allies Cathartidae New World Vultures Pandionidae Ospreys Accipitridae Hawks, Kites, Eagles, and Allies Falconiformes Caracaras and Falcons Falconidae Caracaras and Falcons
There is no change in the sequence of species.
- Whip-poor-will is renamed Eastern Whip-poor-will because of a split.
- The scientific name of Winter Wren is changed from Troglodytes troglodytes to Troglodytes hiemalis because of a split.
- Gnatcatchers are now classified in their own family Polioptilidae and are moved to a position between the wrens and the kinglets.
- The scientific name of Blue-winged Warbler is changed from Vermivora pinus to Vermivora cyanoptera.
- Tennessee, Orange-crowned, and Nashville Warblers are split from genus Vermivora and placed in genus Oreothlypis.
- The two Waterthrushes are split from genus Seiurus and placed in new genus Parkesia, leaving only Ovenbird in Seiurus.
- Bachman's Sparrow is split from genus Aimophila and placed in Peucaea.
- The longspurs and snow buntings are split from Emberizidae and placed in the new family Calcariidae, which is placed between the waxwings and the wood-warblers. Chestnut-collared Longspur is moved to precede Smith's Longspur.
- 52nd Supplement, July 2011
- Common Gallinule is split as a separate species from the Common Moorhen of the Old World. Common Moorhen keeps the old scientific name (Gallinula chloropus) and Common Gallinule takes the new scientific name Gallinula galeata.
- Snowy Plover is split from the Kentish Plover of the Old World. Kentish Plover keeps the old scientific name (Charadrius alexandrinus) and Snowy Plover takes the new scientific name Charadrius nivosus.
- Northern Wheatear is removed from the family Turdidae and placed in the Old World Flycatcher family Muscicapidae, a new family for the Carolinas. Coincidentally, this has no effect on the position of Northern Wheatear in the list of Carolina birds, because Muscicapidae precedes Turdidae, and Northern Wheatear is already listed first in Turdidae.
- There are major changes within the Parulidae, consisting of many reassignments of genus
and a new linear sequence of genera and species.
- Genera Parula, Dendroica, and Wilsonia are deleted by being lumped with other genera. Parula and Dendroica are lumped into Setophaga. One species of Wilsonia (Hooded Warbler) is also lumped into Setophaga, and the other two species (Wilson's and Canada) are lumped into Cardellina (the genus of Red-faced Warbler).
- Kentucky, Mourning, and MacGillivray's Warblers are moved to genus Geothlypis (same as Common Yellowthroat) leaving only Connecticut in Oporornis.
- Although the genus Parula no longer exists, a provision of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature allows the family name to remain Parulidae.
- The new sequence of species, with new generic names, is:
sequence new scientific name common name former scientific name former sequence 1 Seiurus aurocapilla Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla 31 2 Helmitheros vermivorum Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum 29 3 Parkesia motacilla Louisiana Waterthrush Parkesia motacilla 33 4 Parkesia noveboracensis Northern Waterthrush Parkesia noveboracensis 32 5 Vermivora bachmanii Bachman's Warbler Vermivora bachmanii 1 6 Vermivora chrysoptera Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera 3 7 Vermivora cyanoptera Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora cyanoptera 2 8 Mniotilta varia Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia 26 9 Protonotaria citrea Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea 28 10 Limnothlypis swainsonii Swainson's Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii 30 11 Oreothlypis peregrina Tennessee Warbler Oreothlypis peregrina 4 12 Oreothlypis celata Orange-crowned Warbler Oreothlypis celata 5 13 Oreothlypis ruficapilla Nashville Warbler Oreothlypis ruficapilla 6 14 Oporornis agilis Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis 35 15 Geothlypis tolmiei MacGillivray's Warbler Oporornis tolmiei 37 16 Geothlypis philadelphia Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia 36 17 Geothlypis formosa Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus 34 18 Geothlypis trichas Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas 38 19 Setophaga citrina Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina 39 20 Setophaga ruticilla American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla 27 21 Setophaga kirtlandii Kirtland's Warbler Dendroica kirtlandii 20 22 Setophaga tigrina Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina 11 23 Setophaga cerulea Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea 25 24 Setophaga americana Northern Parula Parula americana 7 25 Setophaga magnolia Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia 10 26 Setophaga castanea Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea 23 27 Setophaga fusca Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca 17 28 Setophaga petechia Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia 8 29 Setophaga pensylvanica Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica 9 30 Setophaga striata Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata 24 31 Setophaga caerulescens Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens 12 32 Setophaga palmarum Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum 22 33 Setophaga pinus Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus 19 34 Setophaga coronata Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata 13 35 Setophaga dominica Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica 18 36 Setophaga discolor Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor 21 37 Setophaga nigrescens Black-throated Gray Warbler Dendroica nigrescens 14 38 Setophaga townsendi Townsend's Warbler Dendroica townsendi 16 39 Setophaga virens Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens 15 40 Cardellina canadensis Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis 41 41 Cardellina pusilla Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla 40 42 Icteria virens Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens 42
- 53rd Supplement, July 2012
- Move the Falconiformes (American Kestrel, Merlin, Gyrfalcon, and Peregrine Falcon) to a position between the woodpeckers and flycatchers.
- Change the scientific name of Purple Gallinule from Porphyrio martinica to Porphyrio martinicus for linguistic reasons.
- Move the Psittaciformes (Carolina Parakeet) to a position between the Falconiformes and flycatchers.
- Change the genus of Chuck-will's-widow and Eastern Whip-poor-will from Caprimulgus to Antrostomus because of a split from Old World species.
- Move Broad-billed Hummingbird and Buff-bellied Hummingbird to the end of the list of hummingbirds, as part of a major reordering of hummingbird genera.
- Change the genus of Calliope Hummingbird from Stellula to Selasphorus, as the genera have been lumped, and move Calliope to a position as the last Selasphorus.
- Move Carolina Wren and Bewick's Wren to the end of the list of wren species as part of a major reorganization of wrens.
- Change the genus of Purple Finch and House Finch from Carpodacus to Haemorhous, because of a split from Old World species.
- 54th Supplement, July 2013
- Fea's Petrel is at last recognized as a valid species occurring in North America. It is placed following Black-capped Petrel.
- The subspecies of Little Shearwater (Puffinus assimilis) that is on the South Carolina list is split into a separate species, now called Barolo Shearwater (Puffinis baroli). Note however that Howell's Petrels, Albatrosses, and Storm-Petrels of North America is cited as reporting that the specimen has been re-identified as an Audubon's Shearwater. The South Carolina Bird Records Committee has not yet acted on this re-identification.
- Two species that have traditionally been classified in monotypic genera are lumped into the genus Calidris:
- Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis becomes Calidris subruficollis
- Ruff (Philomachus pugnax becomes Calidris pugnax)
The sequence of species within the genus Calidris changes to the following:
- Red Knot
- Sharp-tailed Sandpiper
- Stilt Sandpiper
- Curlew Sandpiper
- Red-necked Stint
- Purple Sandpiper
- Baird's Sandpiper
- Little Stint
- Least Sandpiper
- White-rumped Sandpiper
- Buff-breasted Sandpiper
- Pectoral Sandpiper
- Semipalmated Sandpiper
- Western Sandpiper
The sequence of families within the order Charadriiformes changes to the following:
- Recurvirostridae (Avocets and Stilts)
- Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
- Charadriidae (Plovers)
- Scolopacidae (Sandpipers)
- Stercorariidae (Skuas and Jaegers)
- Alcidae (Alcids)
- Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
- The sequence of species in the family Mimidae changes to the following:
- Gray Catbird
- Brown Thrasher
- Sage Thrasher
- Northern Mockingbird
- The sequence of our two Haemorhous finches changes to the following:
- House Finch
- Purple Finch
- 55th Supplement, July 2014
- Change the scientific name of Clapper Rail from Rallus longirostris to Rallus crepitans, due to a split.
- Change the sequence of some of the Columbidae by moving White-winged Dove and Mourning Dove to the end of the list, following Common Ground-Dove.
- Passenger Pigeon
- Common Ground-Dove
- White-winged Dove
- Mourning Dove
- 56th Supplement, July 2015
- Change the common name of Herald Petrel to Trindade Petrel due to the split of Pterodroma arminjoniana into Herald and Trindade Petrel's; Trindade is the species occurring in the Carolinas.
- Zino's Petrel, Pterodroma madeira, is now officially in the AOU Check-List, listed following Fea's Petrel. It was already on the North Carolina list, listed preceding Fea's Petrel.
- Change the scientific name of American Tree Sparrow from Spizella arborea to Spizelloides arborea.
- 57th Supplement, July 2016
The sequence of orders that are listed below is massively changed.
The new sequence is
Phoenicopteriformes (Flamingo) Podicipediformes (Grebes) Columbiformes (Doves) Cuculiformes (Cuckoos) Caprimulgiformes (Nightjars) Apodiformes (Swifts and Hummingbirds) Gruiformes (Rails and Cranes) Charadriiformes (Shorebirds, Larids, Alcids) Phaethontiformes (Tropicbirds) Gaviiformes (Loons) Procellariiformes (Tubenoses) Ciconiiformes (Storks) Suliformes (Frigatebirds, Boobies, Cormorants) Pelecaniformes (Pelicans, Herons, Ibises) Cathartiformes (New World Vultures) [new order] Accipitriformes (Hawks) Strigiformes (Owls)
- Green Violetear is split into two species. The species that has occurred in the Carolinas is now named Mexican Violetear. It retains the old scientific name Colibri thalassinus.
- Caribbean Coot is lumped with American Coot. Thus it disappears from the South Carolina Hypothetical List.
- Sandhill Crane is removed from the genus Grus and is now in the genus Antigone, so the scientific name is Antigone canadensis.
- The family Scolopacidae is now subdivided into subfamilies. At the species level, the net result is that Actitis (Spotted Sandpiper) and Tringa (Solitary Sandpiper, Greater Yellowlegs, Willet, and Lesser Yellowlegs) are moved to follow American Woodcock, preceding Wilson's Phalarope.
- Great Shearwater and Sooty Shearwater are removed from genus Puffinus and are now in genus Ardenna. Also, their sequence is reversed, to Sooty Shearwater first, then Great Shearwater. The specific name of Sooty Shearwater is changed from griseus to grisea for gender agreement.
- New World vultures are split into their own order Cathartiformes. Because they were already listed at the beginning of Accipitriformes, this change does not alter their checklist sequence.
- The Vireo family is extensively revised. The only result for species that occur in the Carolinas is that Philadelphia Vireo and Warbling Vireo switch places in checklist sequence.
- Families Ploceidae (Weavers), Passeridae (House Sparrow), Motacillidae (Wagtails and Pipits), and Fringillidae (Finches) are moved, in that sequence, to follow Bombycillidae (Waxwings).
- The sequence of orders that are listed below is massively changed. The new sequence is
- 58th Supplement, July 2017
The genus Chen is lumped into Anser, and our two former Chen species
are inserted before the existing Anser species, so
the sequence of Anser species in the Carolinas is now
- Snow Goose Anser caerulescens
- Ross's Goose Anser rossii
- Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons
The genus Anas is split into four genera, restoring some former
genera. The sequence of former and current members of Anas,
with their current scientific names, is now
- Garganey Spatula querquedula
- Blue-winged Teal Spatula discors
- Cinnamon Teal Spatula cyanoptera
- Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata
- Gadwall Mareca strepera
- Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope
- American Wigeon Mareca americana
- Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
- American Black Duck Anas rubripes
- Mottled Duck Anas fulvigula
- White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis
- Northern Pintail Anas acuta
- Green-winged Teal Anas crecca
Several genera in Scolopacidae have sequence changes.
- In Numenius, two species swap places:
- Eskimo Curlew
In Limosa, Bar-tailed Godwit moves to the first position:
- Bar-tailed Godwit
- Black-tailed Godwit
- Hudsonian Godwit
- Marbled Godwit
Wilson's Snipe and American Woodcock switch places:
- American Woodcock
- Wilson's Snipe
The genus Tringa is rearranged:
- Solitary Sandpiper
- Lesser Yellowlegs
- Spotted Redshank
- Greater Yellowlegs
- In Numenius, two species swap places:
- Thayer's Gull is lumped as a subspecies of Iceland Gull.
- Northern Harrier is split into New World and Old World species. The Old World Hen Harrier keeps the name Circus cyaneus, and our species becomes Northern Harrier Circus hudsonius.
- Northern Shrike is split into New World and Old World species. The Old World Great Gray Shrike retains the name Lanius excubitor and our species becomes Northern Shrike Lanius borealis.
The family Fringillidae is rearranged. Effects on the sequence of
species occurring in the Carolinas are:
- Evening Grosbeak moves to follow Brambling
- Common Redpoll moves to follow Purple Finch
- The family Emberizidae is restricted to include only Old World Buntings. The New World species formerly in Emberizidae are now placed in a new family Passerellidae, New World Sparrows. The family Passerellidae is placed following Calcariidae (instead of following Parulidae as Emberizidae did).
- Yellow-breasted Chat is removed from the Parulidae and placed in its own family, Icteriidae, which is placed just before the Icteridae. Yes, you read that right.
The families following Calcariidae are rearranged into this sequence
- The spelling of Le Conte's Sparrow is corrected to LeConte's Sparrow. “LeConte's” still has two capital letters but is now only one word.
Icteridae are rearranged as follows:
- Yellow-headed Blackbird
- Eastern Meadowlark
- Western Meadowlark
- Orchard Oriole
- Hooded Oriole
- Bullock's Oriole
- Baltimore Oriole
- Scott's Oriole
- Red-winged Blackbird
- Shiny Cowbird
- Brown-headed Cowbird
- Rusty Blackbird
- Brewer's Blackbird
- Common Grackle
- Boat-tailed Grackle
- The genus Chen is lumped into Anser, and our two former Chen species are inserted before the existing Anser species, so the sequence of Anser species in the Carolinas is now